- Kata: Pre-arranged, cooperative practice (includes: sets, forms, drills)
- Randori: Competitive, sportive, game-like, chaotic practice (includes: sparring, games)
Regardless of the method or methods of practice, the aim is to train the mind and body to internalize martial arts skill and ability. The japanese term tai-jitsu (body art) captures some of the flavor of this; in chinese gong fu or kung fu (mastery from long practice) is arguably a closer match.
Physical attributes must be trained (broadly: conditioning) -- body; and coordination refined and knowledge acquired -- mind. The mix, order and priority varies between martial arts, styles and schools. For example: high kicks will demand considerable leg flexibility, strength, and balance; skill in joint-locks require anatomical knowledge, fluid movement, and sensitivity.
In terms of training methods, there are different schools of thought about training holistically or component-wise, directly and indirectly, incrementally or by successive refinement.